Box Butte County was established in 1887. Following cantankerous debates and disputes elections, Alliance became the county seat in 1899. By 1912 the residents believed the original courthouse had outlived its usefulness and needed to be replaced. After passing a bond issue to cover the construction costs, the new courthouse was built in 1913. Designed by the Kansas City architectural firm of Rose and Peterson in the Beaux Arts style the courthouse continues to display good integrity.